Grenache grapes

Grenache, (also known as Grenache Noir, to distinguish it from its white counterpart Grenache Blanc) is the most widely planted grape in the southern Rhône Valley, and the second most widely planted varietal in the world. It is most often blended (with Syrah and Mourvèdre in France and Australia, and with Tempranillo in Rioja), but reaches its peak in the wines of Châteauneuf-du-Pape, where it comprises 70% of the appellation’s acreage. Château de Beaucastel uses between 35 and 50% Grenache in its Beaucastel red, and some producers (most notably Château Rayas) produce Châteauneuf-du-Pape wines that are virtually 100% Grenache.

Early History

Grenache appears to have originated in Spain, most likely in the northern province of Aragon, and ampelographers believe that Grenache was the foundation of Aragon’s excellent vin rouge du pays. From Aragon, it spread throughout the vineyards of Spain and the Mediterranean in conjunction with the reach of the kingdom of Aragon, which at times included Roussillon and Sardinia. By the early 18th century, the varietal had expanded into Languedoc and Provence.

The phylloxera epidemic of the late 19th century indirectly increased European plantings of Grenache.  In RIoja, for example, vineyards were replanted not with the native varietals, but with the hardy, easy to graft Grenache.  A simllar trend occurred in southern France, as the percentage of Grenache plantings after the phylloxera infestation increased signficantly, replacing the previoulsy abundant Mourvèdre.

Grenache was brought to California in the 1860s, where its erect carriage, vigor and resistance to drought made it a popular planting choice. It came to occupy second place in vineyard planting after Carignan and was an element in wine producers’ branded field blends. Unfortunately, this usage encouraged growers to select cuttings from the most productive vines, increasing grape production but reducing the overall quality of the vines. In recent years, Grenache plantings in California have declined, as the varietal is replaced by the more popular Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot; currently there are 9,600 acres planted in California.

However, while overall Grenache acreage has declined (largely low quality plantings in the Central Valley), the varietal has at the same time undergone something of a resurgence in popularity. Newly available high-quality clones, including those from Tablas Creek, have encouraged hundreds of new plantings in California, with the greatest number concentrated in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo counties.

Grenache at Tablas Creek

When we began Tablas Creek Vineyard in 1990, we were not completely satisfied with the quality of California Grenache vines. As a result, we imported our Grenache Noir cuttings (along with its close cousin, Grenache Blanc) from France, where Jacques Perrin at Château de Beaucastel had worked tirelessly to regenerate high quality Grenache vines.  Still, the Perrins feel that vine age is essential in making top quality Grenache.

So, it should perhaps have been unsurprising to us that it took us longer to become happy with our Grenache than than with any of our other varietals.  Our initial expectations were that we would produce wines that were one-third or more Grenache, and we planted the vineyard accordingly.  However, the early harvests of Grenache showed little of the depth that we wanted, and had aggressive front-palate tannins that were in striking contrast to the smoothness of Mourvedre and Syrah.  It has only been since the 2005 vintage that we have been really happy with the variety's performance, and only since 2006 that we've felt Grenache balanced enough to produce it as a varietal wine.

We have increased the percentage of Grenache in our Esprit de Beaucastel each year since 2002: from just 10% in 2002 to 16%, 17%, 26%, 28% and finally 29% in the 2007.

Grenache in the Vineyard and Cellar

Grenache is a vigorous variety with upright shoots that lends itself to “gobelet” or “head pruning”; it is widely cultivated in this manner in France and in Spain. At Tablas Creek, our new Grenache plantings on Scruffy Hill are head pruned; elsewhere on the vineyard, the varietal is cultivated in double cordon fashion with six fruiting canes, each with two buds. The varietal’s vigor gives it the potential to be a heavy producer. Despite our shoot thinning, we are usually obliged to fruit-prune during the growing seasons to keep the bunch count to ten or twelve clusters per vine. This practice means that we harvest approximately three tons of fruit per acre of vines.

Grenache ripens in the middle of the ripening cycle, after Syrah but before Counoise and Mourvedre.  At harvest, it is notable for its high acidity even at relatively high sugar levels.  In a typical year, we would begin to harvest Grenache at the end of September and finish in mid-October.

In the cellar, we typically ferment Grenache in closed stainless steel fermenters, to counteract Grenache's tendency toward oxidation.  We avoid small 60-gallon barrels for Grenache for the same reason, and prefer to age Grenache-based wines in 1200-gallon oak foudres, whose thicker oak staves permit less oxygen to penetrate the wine.

Flavors and Aromas

Grenache produces wines with high concentrations of fruit, tannin, and acids. Its flavors are most typically currant, cherry, and raisin, and its aromas are of black pepper, menthol, and licorice. Although many California Grenache clones produce simple, fruity wines which tend to be pale in color, our French clones produce brilliant ruby red wines which are heady in alcohol (usually 15% or higher), and intensely fruity and fat.

For our signature Esprit de Beaucastel, Grenache is typically our #2 varietal (behind Mourvèdre and slightly ahead of Syrah) and opens up those more closed, reductive varieties. The varietal can thrives in a lead role in a fruity, forward wine as in our Grenache-based Côtes de Tablas. We have also produced a varietal Grenache each year since 2006.  In this wine, we typically moderate the sweetness of Grenache with 10% Syrah.

This article originally appeared in a recent quarterly newsletter. Each newsletter, we spotlight the history and characteristics of one of our Rhone varietals. You can sign up for our mailing list.

You can go back to the summaries of the different Rhône grape varietals.


2015 Barrel Tasting and En Primeur Offering

December 3rd, 2016
Wine Club members are invited to join Tablas Creek's winemakers for our annual barrel tasting and sale en primeur of Tablas Creek's remarkable red wines from the outstanding 2015 vintage. Offering wine en primeur is a time-honored French tradition most often associated with first-growth Bordeaux estates.

Join Tablas Creek's winemakers at one of two sessions (10:30am or 1:30pm) to taste the 2015 Esprit de Tablas, 2015 Esprit de Tablas Blanc, and 2015 Panoplie from barrel, discuss the vintage, and enjoy a seasonal dish created to pair with the wines. To make a reservation, please call us at 805.237.1231 x230 or email

Whether or not they attend the tasting, members may order futures at an additional 5% off of the member club discount, typically 25%-30% off eventual release price. Members should look forward to receiving an invitation to the futures tasting and en primeur offering in the mail in early November.  Details & more events »

Tablas Creek News

Vinous: 28 Wines 90+ Points

In Antonio Galloni's Vinous (Sept. 2016) 28 Tablas wines topped 90 points, including 2014 Esprit Blanc (93), 2013 Panoplie (95), 2014 Patelin de Tablas (91) and 2014 En Gobelet (93). Read the review » More press »

Tablas Creek wins 2016 California Green Medal for Sustainability

The CA Sustainable Winegrowing Alliance awarded Tablas Creek one of four 2016 Green Medals for leadership in sustainability. Our practices »

October Featured Wine: 2014 Patelin de Tablas

Each month we feature a wine showing particularly well and offer it at a 10% discount. October's wine is the rich 2014 Patelin de TablasDetails »

On the Tablas Blog

Grapes Two Ways: Oven Roasted Chicken with Grapes and Shallots, Paired with Grenache Blancs

October 14, 2016
By Suphada Rom
Walking through the cellar a couple of weeks ago, I was engulfed by the raw sensations of the place. The sweet yet pungent aroma of fermenting grapes. The music blasting out from the high positioned speakers, reverberating off the large tanks and walls. The complex dance of forklifts moving grapes in, must out, and bins to be cleaned. The intense focus of the cellar team, going about their individual tasks. It's one moment in time, but critical to everything we do the rest of the year. Read More »